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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 120-124

Pattern of paediatric solid cancers seen in radiotherapy and oncology department, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria - Nigeria

1 Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology , Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
4 Paediatrics Surgery Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
S A Adewuyi
Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology , Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Aims and objectives: To evaluate the Pattern of Paediatricsolid cancers seen over 5 years in the Radiotherapy and Oncology Department of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria-Nigeria. Materials and methods: The study involved patients aged 16 years and below diagnosed with solid cancers referred to the Radiotherapy and Oncology Centre for further management. Between January 2006 and December 2010, a total of 136 new patients with paediatric solid cancers were seen and evaluated. Only patients with histological confirmation were included in the study (136 out of 141 patients) irrespective of cancer type, sex, co-morbidity and performance status. Patients' folders were reviewed retrospectively with a structured pro forma. Information retrieved from patients folder included age, sex, histological type, stage and types of treatments received. Results were presented in tables. Results: A total of 136 patients were evaluated with a mean age of 6.9 years (median of 5 years, age range 1.5 - 16 years). 74 patients (54.4%) were 5 years and below and 98 patients (72%) were 10 years and below. The sex ratio M:F was 1.3:1. At presentation at the Radiotherapy and Oncology centre, only 4 (3%) patients had early stage disease, 100 (73.5%) with locally advanced disease and 32 (23.5%) with metastatic disease. Retinoblastoma 48 (35.3%) was the commonest cancer seen followed by soft tissue sarcoma 20 (14.7%, all rhabdomyosarcoma), lymphomas 15 (11%) (9 Burkitt's and 6 Hodgkin's lymphoma), nephroblastoma 13 (9.6%), bone sarcoma 12 (8.8%) (8 Osteosarcoma and 4 Ewing's sarcoma), nasopharyngeal cancers 8 (5.9%), brain cancer 6 (4.4%), sacrococcygealtumours 6 (4.4%) and other cancers accounted for 8 (5.9%). 116 (85.3%) patients received chemotherapy, 86 (63.2%) patients were scheduled for radiotherapy but only 21 (15.4%) received local field irradiation due to financial constraints and 43 (31.6%) had definitive surgery. Palliative care with medications was done in 22 (16.2%) patients. Of 48 patients with retinoblastoma, 30 affected left eye, 16 affected right eye and 2 patients were with bilateral retinoblastoma. The mean age for retinoblastoma was 3.8 years (median age of 3 years and mode is 3 years). The mean age for rhabdomyosarcoma was 8.7 yr (median age of 6.5 years). Conclusion: Paediatric solid cancers were found to be more common in males than females with more than half being diagnosed in children aged 5 years and below. Retinoblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma were the most common neoplasms. Most patients presented with locally advanced and metastatic cancers. Geographic variation exists withhistological types.

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