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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-7

Spirometric evaluation of ventilatory function in adult male cigarette smokers in Sokoto metropolis

1 Department of Medicine, UDUTH, Sokoto, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, ABUTH, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, UCTH, Calabar, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Muhammad D Isah
Department of Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, P.M.B. 2370, Sokoto
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_151_16

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Background: Cigarette smoking is a widespread social habit in Nigeria with extensive deleterious multisystemic effect. Ventilatory dysfunction is one of the cigarette smoking-related illnesses that affect the respiratory system. Spirometry is an investigative method that can be used for the early detection of ventilatory dysfunction even before the onset of the symptoms. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire adapted from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey was administered to collect demographic, clinical, and cigarette smoking data. Ventilatory function test was conducted using Clement Clarke (One Flow) Spirometer, version 1.3. The highest value of each ventilatory function index was chosen for analysis, and individual(s) with ventilatory dysfunction were subjected to post bronchodilator spirometry. Results: For the purpose of this research, 150 participants who were currently cigarette smokers were enrolled, and 50 apparently healthy, age-matched individuals who were never smokers served as controls in the ratio of 3:1. Eighty percent of participants and 68% of controls were aged 40 years or below. The mean age of participants (34.27 ± 8.91 years) and the controls (35.08 ± 10.35 years) was not significantly different (P = 0.592). Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences between the mean anthropometric indices (weight: P = 0.663, height: P = 0.084, and body mass index: P = 0.099) of both participants and controls. The mean values of FEV1 (forced expiratory flow in one second) and FEV1/FVC (FVC=forced vital capacity) were lower in the participants compared to the controls, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). There was a weak negative correlation between pack-years of cigarette smoking and FEV1 (r = −0.237 and P = 0.004). Obstructive ventilatory defect was found among six study participants (4%) and two controls (4%). Conclusion: Cigarette smoking is associated with decline in ventilatory function test indices (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC) in adult males. Decline in FEV1 is directly related to pack-years of cigarette smoking.

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