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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 25-30

Community screening for pre-hypertension, traditional risk factors and markers of chronic kidney disease in Ondo State, South-Western Nigeria


1 Department of Medicine, Kidney Care Centre, Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Haematology, State Specialist Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
3 Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Kidney Care Centre, Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria
4 Research Unit, Kidney Care Centre, Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria
5 University of Medical Sciences, Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Akinwumi A Akinbodewa
PMB 542, Medical Village, 23434 Ondo Township, Ondo State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_161_16

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Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become an epidemic with many recognised risk factors. However, the role of pre-hypertension in CKD is yet to be fully studied in our environment. Objectives: We set out to determine the magnitude of pre-hypertension and traditional CKD risk factors. We also determined their relationships to proteinuria. Subjects and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in two urban local government areas (Akure South and Ondo West) in Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria in March 2014. A total of 1,183 adults (M:F, 0.63:1) were studied. Their bio-data, history of cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, herbal usage, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diabetes and hypertension were obtained. A total of 1,183 adults (M:F, 0.63:1) blood pressure (BP) and anthropometry were determined. Urinalysis was conducted using Combi-Uriscreen® 10SL. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. Results: A total of 1183 adults (M:F, 1:1.6) were studied with a mean age of 44.7 ± 17.4 years. Their mean systolic BP, diastolic BP and body mass index were 129.6 ± 23.7 mmHg, 79.8 ± 14 mmHg and 26.2 ± 5.8 kg/m2, respectively. Pre-hypertension was present in 32.3% of the subjects, while hypertension was present in 43.4% of the subjects; 6.2% gave history of diabetes, 4.5% smoked cigarette, 68.3% used herbs and 44.1% used NSAIDs. Proteinuria was present in 25.9% of the subjects, while haematuria was present in 1.7% of the subjects. BP and age showed significant association to proteinuria. Conclusion: Pre-hypertension and known risk factors of CKD are prevalent in the people of Ondo State, Nigeria. Individuals with persistent pre-hypertension should be routinely screened for CKD and referred to the Nephrologist for early intervention.


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