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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 150-154

Invasive candidiasis in a neonatal intensive care unit in Lagos, Nigeria

1 Department of Paediatrics, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria
2 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Beatrice Nkolika Ezenwa
Department of Paediatrics, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_104_17

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Background: Invasive candidiasis has been identified globally as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Systemic candidiasis presents like bacterial sepsis and can involve multiple organs. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Candida infection in a NICU at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria and to identify its associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of culture-proven invasive Candida infection (ICI) in neonates admitted to the NICU over a 4-year period. The study participants were identified from microbiology records of all neonates with a positive Candida culture. Medical records of identified neonates were also reviewed, and relevant information obtained. Results: Over the 4 years, 2712 newborns were admitted to the NICU. From these, 1182 various clinical samples were collected from babies with features of sepsis and processed in the medical microbiology laboratory. Twenty-seven (2.3%) of the cultures yielded Candida organisms; fifteen of the Candida cultures were from male infants with a male:female ratio of 1.3:1. Bloodstream infection was the most frequent ICI seen in preterm babies (seven [58.3%] out of 12 babies with ICI). Nearly, all (91.7%) affected preterm infants with ICI were <1500 g in weight. All were exposed to invasive procedures and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The case fatality rate among those with ICI was 18.5%. Conclusion: There was a significant prevalence of invasive candidiasis in high-risk newborns and the incidence increases with increased practices in risk factors such as invasive procedures and antibiotic use and lower gestational age babies with very low birth weight.

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