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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 246-251

Review of 109 cases of primary malignant orofacial lesions seen at a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2 Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Olufunlola Motunrayo Adesina
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_115_18

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Background: Orofacial malignancy is a growing health issue common in developing regions of the world. Presentation patterns are myriad with geographic variations. Advanced stage owing to late presentation constitutes a significant public health burden. The site and type of the lesions are valuable in diagnosis and patient management. Aim: This study aims to review cases of primary orofacial malignancies at the OAUTHC Dental Hospital. Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of histologically diagnosed orofacial malignancies, the relative frequencies, types and site of distribution. Materials and Methods: Records of patients with orofacial malignancies at the OAUTHC, Dental Hospital over a period of 10 years (January 2008–December 2017) were reviewed, demographic data (age, gender and site), history of tobacco use were retrieved and entered into a pro forma. The data obtained were analysed with STATA 11. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Of 375, 109 cases of neoplasms seen were primary malignant tumours, with prevalence rate of 29.1%. There were 71 (65.1%) males and 38 (34.9%) females (male:female ratio of 1.87:1), mean age (48.7 ± 19.3 years) and range (4–94 years). Affected sites were mandible (41, 37.6%), maxilla (39, 35.8%), palate (17, 15.6%) and others. Lesions were mainly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC: 46, 42.2%), salivary gland adenocarcinomas (SGAs, 25, 22.9%) including 8 (32%) cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Others were odontogenic carcinoma (18, 16.5%) and lymphoma (8, 7.3%). Most specimen analysed were hard tissues (n = 63, 57.8%). Thirty-four (73.9%) cases of SCC and 66 (60.6%) cases of primary malignancies were in the 5th–9th decades of life. This was statistically significant at P = 0.000. Conclusion: SCC was more prevalent than salivary and odontogenic carcinomas. ACC and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were two most common SGAs. Metastatic tumours to the jaws are rare.

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