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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 53-60

The pattern and outcomes of childhood renal diseases at University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria: A 4 year retrospective review

Nephrology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje
Nephrology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_174_18

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Introduction: Renal disorders contribute to childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Therefore, the knowledge of the burden of childhood renal diseases is required for preventive and management purposes. This article determines the pattern and the outcomes of childhood renal diseases seen at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of children aged 1 month to 17 years, who were seen at the paediatric nephrology clinic, emergency paediatric unit and paediatric ward of the UATH over 4 years from January 2013 to December 2016. Results: A total of 4327 children were seen during the study period, with 163 of them having renal disorders, including 95 (58.3%) males and 68 (41.7%) females (mean age of 5.9 ± 4.7 years) giving a prevalence of 3.8% (38 cases per 1000 children). There was a progressive increase in the diagnoses of renal diseases during the study period, from 3.1% in 2013 to 5.4% in 2016. The most common disorders were urinary tract infection (UTI) 50 (30.7%) and acute kidney injury (AKI) 50 (30.7%). Others included nephrotic syndrome (11.7%), congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract (9.2%), acute glomerulonephritis (7.9%), chronic kidney disease (CKD, 6.7%), nephroblastoma (3.7%) and urolithiasis (2.5%). Twenty-three children died (mortality rate of 14.1%), resulting mostly from AKI (7.8%) and CKD (9.1%). Conclusion: UTI and AKI are the leading renal disorders in this study. Concerted efforts are needed to promote preventive nephrology in the face of high cost of treating acute kidney disease and CKD in Nigeria.

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