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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 83-86

Mortality patterns in patients with diabetes mellitus at a Nigerian tertiary hospital: A 10-Year autopsy study

1 Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Pathology, University College Hospital; Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mustapha A Ajani
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_160_19

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Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global health problem with associated high morbidity and mortality. This study was a retrospective review of post-mortem examination findings of hospitalised patients with DM for causes of death. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional autopsy review of all the patients with DM in our hospital between January 2008 and December 2017 was conducted. The causes of death were classified into cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, acute diabetic emergencies, infection, cancers and unnatural deaths. The demographic data and clinicopathological parameters were extracted, and the data were analysed using the SPSS software version 23. Results: A total of 1092 cases of autopsy were done within the study period, of which 91 cases were on patients with diabetes accounting for 8.3%. Infections with sepsis were the major cause of death, accounting for 51.6% followed by cardiovascular diseases (16.5%), cancers (14.3%), acute diabetic emergencies (6.6%) and cerebrovascular accidents (6.6%), with renal complications and road traffic accidents accounting for 2.2% each. Patients' age ranged from 31 to 84 years, with a modal age of 57 years. There was a male predominance with a male-to-female ratio of 1.5:1. Systemic hypertension co-morbidity was statistically significantly more common in patients aged 60 and above (P = 0.035). The most common lesion observed in the kidneys was benign nephrosclerosis (43.2%). Conclusions: This study suggests that majority of our patients with diabetes mellitus die from infections with attendant sepsis. Older patients appear to have co-morbid systemic hypertension. Patient education on infection prevention and prompt treatment might be life-saving.

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