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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-33

Gross Haematuria among Adult Nigerians: Current Trend

1 Urology unit, Department of Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria
2 Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria
3 St Mary Specialist Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

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Aims and objectives : To determine if there is any change in the common causes of gross haematuria among adults Nigerians and to determine what proportion of these aetiologies is due to urological malignancies. Patients and Methods : Consecutive adults with presenting with gross haematuria seen in our centre were studied prospectively between February 2006 and January 2007. All patients had detailed clinical and diagnostic evaluation including urine cytology, flexible/rigid urethrocystoscopy, ultrasonography and intravenous urography to determine the causes of their haematuria. Other special investigations including CT scan and tissue biopsies were only used in selected patients as indicated. Results: The cause of haematuria was determined in 74 patients (93.7%) while haematuria was of undetermined origin in 5 patients (6.3%). Fifteen different specific diagnoses were made as the causes of haematuria in this study. The three commonest individual causes of haematuria were benign prostatic hyperplasia (30.4%), bladder carcinoma (12.6 %) and carcinoma of the prostate (10.1%). Urological malignancies were diagnosed in 29.1 % of the patients. The Urological malignancies detected were bladder cancers (12.6 %), prostate cancers (10.1%), renal Cell Carcinoma (5.1%) and urethral Carcinoma (1.3%). The incidence of the cancers increased with age; 82.6% of the patients with malignancies were aged 50years and above while only 17.4% were below 50 years of age (P= 0.045). Urological malignancies were also more common in men (73.9 %) than in women (26.1 %) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that there is changing trend in the aetiologies of gross haematuria among adult Nigerian patients with urological malignancies being now more prevalent than previously reported in our environment.

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