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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 190-195

Pattern of haemoglobin phenotypes in newborn infants at the national hospital abuja using high performance liquid chromatography

1 Department of Paediatrics, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
3 Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
4 Department of Haematology, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Lamidi Isah Audu
Department of Paediatrics, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna State University, Kaduna
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_39_20

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Background: Haemoglobin (Hb) disorders are among the most common blood genetic disorders worldwide, and they constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in Nigeria. Despite the clinical significance of early diagnosis, newborn screening for these conditions is not routinely done in Nigeria. Objective: This study was undertaken to document the pattern of Hb phenotypes of newborn babies at the National Hospital Abuja and highlight the relevance of neonatal screening for early diagnosis of abnormal Hb phenotypes in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study of eligible newborn babies delivered in the hospital at the study site was undertaken following parental informed consent. Venous blood was collected from the babies into an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid sample bottles. The samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques, and the Hb phenotypes obtained were documented. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 (IBM-SPSS, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: Three hundred and eleven newborns (male = 173, female = 138) aged 0–28 days were recruited. Two hundred and thirty-six (75.9%) babies had Hb AA (FA) phenotype, 63 (20.3%) Hb AS (FAS), 6 (1.9%) Hb SS (FS), 4 (1.3%) Hb AC (FAC) and 2 (0.6%) had abnormal HbA variants. The overall prevalence of abnormal Hb phenotype was 24.1%. The results showed a significant association of sex (P = 0.003) and ethnicity (P = 0.047) with Hb phenotype. Conclusion: There is a wide spectrum of abnormal Hb phenotypes in Nigeria, and these phenotypes can easily be detected at birth using HPLC. We, therefore, recommend routine neonatal screening for sickle cell disease by HPLC in Nigeria.

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