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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-26

Clinical, endoscopic and histological profile of colorectal cancers seen on colonoscopy in Kano, North-Western Nigeria

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital and Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria
4 Department of Histopathology Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital and Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
5 Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Yusuf Musa
Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Katsina
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_288_20

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Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most prevalent gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. With 5% risk of developing CRC in life, it became the third leading cause of cancer death in developed nations. In Nigeria, it is the most common GI cancer. However, there are limited data on CRC in the study area (North-Western part of Nigeria). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical, endoscopic and histological profile of CRC seen on colonoscopy. Methodology: This was a retrospective descriptive study where colonoscopic and histological records of suspected CRC in the study centre between January 2008 to December 2017 were evaluated. Results: Records of 135 patients were reviewed, and males constituted 63.7%. The mean age was 46.61 ± 16.80 years, with 30–39 years as a modal group. Common presentations were diarrhoea (86.7%) and bleeding per rectum (68.9%). Areas affected were rectosigmoid colon (63%), ascending colon (14.1%), descending colon (8.9%), transverse colon (7.4%) and anal canal (6.7%). Histologically, adenocarcinoma was reported in 57.8%, mucinous adenocarcinoma in 8.1% and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma in 3.7%. Tubular and villous adenomas were 3% each. Others were carcinoid tumours (1.5%), metastatic adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, GI stromal tumour, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, angiosarcoma and adenoid cyst carcinoma reported in 0.7% each. Conclusion: Majority of the patients with CRC were in their young age. The most common presentations were diarrhoea, weight loss and anaemia. The most common site of affectation was in the left colon, while the most common histological finding was adenocarcinoma.

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