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   2007| January-March  | Volume 14 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 23, 2016

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Environmental sanitation in an urban community in Benin City, Edo State
EC Isah, OH Okojie
January-March 2007, 14(1):12-15
OBJECTIVES: To assess the sanitary conditions in an urban community in Benin City, Edo State. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study using multi-staged sampling method. Data collection was by means semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaires. Intervention in the form of health education was carried out among the respondents on various environmental sanitation issues. Data was analysed using the Computer Programme for Epidemiologists (PEPI). RESULTS: A majority 213(50.4%) of the respondents obtained their water from private boreholes while 93(22.0%) obtained irregular pipe-borne water supplies from the public utility board, with only 160(37.8%) having adequate supplies and 291(68.8%) not using any form of water purification methods. 321(75.8%) of the respondents used the water closet for sewage disposal though these toilets were not flushed after every use in 70.7% of cases. The commonest methods of refuse disposal were open dumping (59.0%) and burning (26.4%). Indices of personal hygiene practices were high (average 87.8%), though the proportions of respondents who used soap for hand washing were all lower than those of hand washing without soap. Vector and pest control were mainly by the use of mosquito nettings of doors and windows (30.4%) and fumigation (18.8%). CONCLUSION: The overall level of sanitation is unsatisfactory. There is therefore need for intensive and continued health education to address these deficiencies.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  745 0 -
Comparative study of the effect of tocotrienols and -tocopherol on fasting serum lipid profiles in patients with mild hypercholesterolaemia: A preliminary report
JN Ajuluchukwu, NU Okubadejo, M Mabayoje, FI Ojini, RN Okwudiafor, AC Mbakwem, OA Fasanmade, DA Oke
January-March 2007, 14(1):30-33
OBJECTIVES: Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Tocotrienols reportedly possess hypocholesterolaemic activity. This study examined the effect of tocotrienols (T3) in TOCOVIDTM Suprabio TM on serum lipids. Patients and Methods : A randomised (2:1), open-label study of patients with mild hypercholesterolaemia (= 5.18mmol/L to <7.77mmol/L) and one additional cardiovascular risk factor was carried out. Subjects received either tocotrienols (as TOCOVIDTM Suprabio TM ) (n=28) or vitamin E (a-tocopherol) 500mg daily (n=16). Fasting lipids were compared at baseline and after 4 weeks therapy. RESULTS: Following 4 weeks therapy, mean +/- SD total cholesterol declined significantly in the tocotrienol group (from 6.10+/-0.66 to 5.47+/-1.16; P=0.02) compared to the a-tocopherol group (from 5.92+/-0.52 to 5.47+/-0.76; P>0.05). Mean LDL-C levels (mmol/L) were also significantly reduced in the tocotrienol group (3.82+/-0.85 to 3.24+/-1.26; P=0.04), but not in those on a-tocopherol (3.84+/-0.75 to 3.28+/-0.94; P>0.05). There were no significant changes in HDL-C and triglycerides in both groups. The tocotrienol group experienced a net decline in TG (7.1+/-31.4 %; P>0.05) while the a-tocopherol group had a net increase at week 4 (38.6+/-61.7%; P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The study adds to existing evidence of the favourable effect of tocotrienols on total cholesterol and LDL-C. However, the results need further
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  722 0 -
Attitude of nigerian resident doctors towards clinical autopsy
VJ Ekanem, IE Gerry
January-March 2007, 14(1):8-11
BACKGROUND: It is to the disadvantage of the doctors in training that there is a decline in the rate of clinical autopsy world wide. This decline may to an extent depend on the attitude of the physicians. AIM: To evaluate the attitude of resident doctors towards the practice of clinical autopsy and to determine their role in the decline of clinical autopsy. METHOD: We carried out a survey of the attitude of resident doctors undergoing training in the various clinical departments of our teaching hospital towards clinical autopsy practice. This survey was by means of a structured randomly distributed questionnaire. Questions were asked on their willingness to request for autopsy, the number of autopsies that they have requested for so far, what hinders them from requesting for autopsy, the level of participation at autopsy and the importance of autopsies in the health care delivery system RESULTS: Eighteen (30%) out of 60 resident doctors attributed their inability to request for autopsy on their not being in direct control of the patients, while 16 (26.7%) found it difficult to get consent from the relatives. Seventeen per cent of them gave reason of not being able to obtain report from the pathologist, 13.3% said it was difficult to get pathologist to perform autopsy on time while only 11% said they knew the diagnosis in most of their cases. Almost all the resident doctors (98.5%) agreed that autopsy is a necessary procedure and is important for their training and health care delivery system CONCLUSION: Autopsy rate can increase if the resident doctors receive more blessings to request for autopsy from their consultants. Increased exposure to autopsies and education with regards to the benefits of autopsies at both the undergraduate and post graduate level will contribute to improvement in the rate of clinical autopsy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  715 0 -
Plasma magnesium and calcium levels in children with epilepsy in Lagos
OO Oladipo, FE Lesi, VC Ezeaka
January-March 2007, 14(1):26-29
BACKGROUND: Magnesium and calcium have been found to have increasing roles in the patho-physiology of epilepsy. Hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia cause hyper-exitability of neurons and have been associated strongly with seizures in adults and children. OBJECTIVES: To determine if hypomagnesaemia or hypocalcaemia is present in Nigerian children with epilepsy and to determine the relationship between serum magnesium and calcium levels and frequency and control of epilepsy. DESIGN: A prospective case control study at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 45 children with epilepsy and 45 controls were recruited from the paediatric neurology unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Serum magnesium and calcium were measured by spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: Serum magnesium and calcium was significantly lower in the patients compared to the controls; Magnesium - 0.98 (0.0005) Vs 1.2 (0.04) mmol/L, p< 0.0001 and Calcium - 2.29 (0.04) Vs 2.3 (0.02) mmol/L, p<0.05 respectively. No significant differences were noted in the plasma phosphorus and albumin concentrations. CONCLUSION: Magnesium and calcium levels are lower in the epileptic children compared to the controls during the seizure-free periods. More studies are needed to evaluate these electrolytes during seizures and the effect of the different anticonvulsant drugs on these electrolytes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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A-5 year review of cerebral malaria in nigerian children
JB Elusiyan, PO Obiajunwa, IO Senbanjo, HC Anyanbolu
January-March 2007, 14(1):60-62
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria is thought to be common in the under fives in a malaria holoendemic region like ours. But we are recently seeing cases of cerebral malaria in children older than 5 years. This study was carried out to determine the Morbidity And Mortality Pattern Of Cerebral Malaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of cases of cerebral malaria seen over a five-year period (1999-2003) at the Paediatrics Department of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex Ile-Ife. All case notes of patients admitted with a diagnosis of cerebral malaria were retrieved and relevant data extracted to a standard form. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty four (154) patients were managed as cerebral malaria, out of a total of 5,456 admissions over this period. Eighteen were aged less than one year, 128 were aged 1-5 years while eight were aged >5 years. Eight of the 154 patients died (5.2%). However 16 (10.3%) had various neurological deficits at discharge. CONCLUSION: Cerebral malaria is still a major complication of malaria in our practice and it is no longer a problem of under-five children alone.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Ophthalmic mortality in a tertiary centre in Nigeria
AE Omoti, E Ogbedo
January-March 2007, 14(1):54-56
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality rate of ophthalmic ward patients and the causes of death. METHODS: A retrospective study of all ophthalmic patients admitted into the ophthalmic wards of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City between May 1989 and April 2005 was conducted. The case records of all ophthalmic deaths were analysed. The age, sex, diagnosis and cause of death were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 1854 patients were admitted into the ophthalmic ward comprising 1,057 males (57%) and 797 females (43%) giving a male-to-female ratio of 1.3:1. There were 7 deaths in the ophthalmic wards during the period giving a mortality rate of 3.8/100 admission. Three patients (42.8%) were being managed for orbital cellulitis, 2 patients (28.6%) had malignant tumours and the remaining 2 patients (28.6%) had cataract extraction. CONCLUSION: The mortality rate in the ophthalmic ward was low. Deaths could be prevented by early presentation, adequate preoperative screening, good nursing care, high index of suspicion by clinicians and provision of affordable drugs for life-threatening conditions.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  701 0 -
Performance at the national postgraduate medical college fellowship examinations in dental surgery- A 23 year review
AL Ladeinde, PA Akeredolu, SO Jeboda, EA Akpabio
January-March 2007, 14(1):63-66
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the performances at various levels of examinations from inception as a guide to the assessing how far the Faculty has been able to meet the objectives for which it was established and offer recommendations for repositioning the Faculty for future development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of the Fellowship examinations of the Faculty of Dental Surgery in the three examination levels from 1979 to 2002 (FMCDS) were retrieved. The data were analysed for gender, sub specialties of preference, number of attempts at Parts I and II levels and average duration of completion of the Fellowship programme. RESULTS: Between 1979-2002, 633 candidates sat for the Primary FMCDS examination, 262 (41%) were successful. In the Part I FMCDS examination 330 candidates sat for the examination from 1980-2002. 128 (39%) were successful, while at the Part II level 77 candidates sat for the examination, 43 (56%) were successful and 34 (44%) failed. 57(44.5%) and 30 (69.8%) passed the Part I & II respectively at first attempt, while 27 (21.1%) and 10 (23.3%) were successful in the Parts I and II respectively at the 2nd attempt. 39 (30.5%) and 5 (3.9%) were successful in the Part I examination at 3rd and 4th attempts, while 3(7.0%) were successful in the Part II FMCDS at 3rd attempt. The duration of training ranged from 6-7 years in over 50% of the candidates, mean of 7.5 years overall. CONCLUSION: The Faculty of Dental Surgery has had tremendous impact on the dental manpower need of the nation within the period under review
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Malignant breast lessions at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (O.O.U.T.H), Sagamu-A histopathological review
EK Abudu, AA Banjo, MC Izegbu, AO Agboola, CC Anunobi, OA Musa
January-March 2007, 14(1):57-59
Various reports suggest an increasing incidence of breast cancer in Nigeria. The large volume of literature published on the subject of breast cancer bear witness to the interest shown in the subject. We therefore carried out a review of 50 cases of breast cancer recently confirmed histologically by our unit to study their characteristics and compare these with previous reports. A 2- years retrospective review of all histologically diagnosed carcinoma of the breast at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu from 2002-2003 was carried out. The peak age of occurrence was between 40-49 years with mean age of 47.5years. Invasive ductal carcinoma was predominant histologic type in 94% of cases and 72% presented late with advanced disease (Manchester stages 111 and 1V) with dismal prognosis. Surgery was the mainstay of treatment for both early and late disease. To ensure early and prompt detection, presentation and treatment, emphasis should be placed on female education, increasing awareness and encouraging breast self-examination. There is also a need for cancer registration centre in the hospital and a multicentred, controlled study of breast cancer in Nigeria.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  683 0 -
Prevalence of poor glycaemic control in diabetics seen in a tertiary medical centre
ES Idogun, FE Olumese
January-March 2007, 14(1):34-36
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of poor glycaemic control in otherwise clinically stable diabetic patients seen in a tertiary hospital. STUDY DESIGN: It was a cross-sectional study of 64 type 2 diabetic patients and 32 healthy controls. Patients were randomly selected from registered diabetic patients of the hospital who came to the pathology phlebotomy room for routine fasting plasma glucose investigation; (prior to their regular diabetic clinic attendance). The controls were selected from amongst hospital workers and clients of the hospital on routine medical investigations. The fasting plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin were estimated, so also was urinalysis. The mean, standard deviation and standard error of mean (SEM) were calculated, so also were the frequency and percentages. Student ' t ' test method was applied as test of statistical significance. RESULTS: 53.2% of the patients had good glycaemic control, 31.2% fair and 15.6% poor glycaemic control. 46.9% glycosuria, 34.4% proteinuria and 9.4% ketonuria. 31.8% had no formal education and 46.9% had no knowledge of the type of drugs they were taking for the disease. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of poor glycaemic control is high in type 2 DM patients seen in our hospital. More regular monitoring of FPG and glycated haemoglobin is recommended.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Antioxidant effects of Vitamins C and E on phenylhydrazine-induced haemolysis in sprague dawley rats: Evidence for a better protection by Vitamin E
IP Odigie, FB Okpoko, PD Ojobo
January-March 2007, 14(1):1-7
BACKGROUND: Phenyldrazine (PHDZ) provokes acute haemolysis and generates free radicals that are known to be involved in the toxicity of the drug. Vitamin C and E have been ascribed beneficial roles in many acute haemolytic states and oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on PHDZ- induced haemolysis in SD rat in-vivo and ex-vivo. METHOD: Rats treated for weeks with oral vitamin E (500mg/kg/day, n=6), oral vitamin C (100mg/kg/day, n=6) and control rats, which received tap water; were monitored for peripheral blood parameters and haemolytic activity of erythrocytes at Baseline, 48 hours and 1 week respectively after intraperitonial administration of PHDZ (15mg/kg/day for 7 days). Osmotic fragility as well as organ weights were determined 1 week after PHDZ. Dose-dependent effects of vitamins C and E on haemolysis were determined at the end of 120 min incubation of rat RBC with the vitamins in phosphate-buffered-saline. RESULTS: Hb and PCV were better preserved in rats pre-treated with the antioxidants. The spleenomegaly, cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly associated with PHDZ treatment were significantly reduced in antioxidant pre-treated rats (P<0.001). reduction in cardiac weight was more marked in vitamin E group (0.56+/- 0.02g vs. 0.72+/-0.03g; n=6; P<0.01; vitamin E vs. PHDZ) compared to vitamin C (0.69+/-0.02g vs. 0.72+/-0.03g; n=6; P>0.05; vitamin C compared to PHDZ). RBC of vitamin E group exhibited better resistance to osmoticlysis (P<0.001). at higher doses (400-500mg/L), vitamin C caused significant haemolysis both in the absence (P<0.001) and presence of PHDZ (P<0.001). Vitamin E abolished the long tail of the osmotic fragiligram. CONCLUSION: The result of this study suggests that compared to vitamin C, vitamin E may better protect RBC against haemolysis induced by oxidative stress.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Substance use among university undergraduates: A study of pattern and beliefs in Ile-Ife
FO Fatoye
January-March 2007, 14(1):37-41
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of substance use and to investigate the relationship between psychosocial variables and current use of psychoactive substances among university undergraduates. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected undergraduates of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife was carried out using the WHO drug use questionnaire. RESULTS: Alcohol, stimulants, hypnosedatives, tobacco and cannabis with current use prevalence rates of 20.2 %, 17.7%, 9.8%, 9.0% and 8.2 % respectively were the most commonly used substances. Inhalants/organic solvents, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens and pethidine/morphine with current use rates of 3.2%, 2.6%, 2.2%, 1.0% and 0.5% respectively belonged to the 'low - use' category. However, these rates were marginally higher than most previous findings. Five variables (sex, polygamy, living outside the university campus, poor mental health and study difficulty), were significantly associated with the use of many of the substances. Also, perceived harmfulness was observed to be a possible deterrent to substance use and most users were engaged in the use of cheap and easily available substances.CONCLUSION: The observations are largely similar to those from other locations in Nigeria and may therefore be useful in preventive programmes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Two decades of minilaparotomy female sterilisation at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital
AO Aisien, AU Oronsaye
January-March 2007, 14(1):67-71
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate female sterilisation through minilaparotomy approach in University of Benin Teaching Hospital over a 20-year period. STUDY DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: This was a retrospective study in which the case notes of 156 clients who accepted permanent method of contraception out of 14771 acceptors of family planning methods in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between January 1985 and December 2004 were retrieved and analyzed for socio-demographic characteristics of the clients, timing, technique, type of anaesthesia used and the complications associated with the procedure. RESULTS: The incidence of female sterilisation was 1%, mean age and parity were 36.9 +/- 3.6years and 6.4 +/- 1.6 respectively. 80.8% had interval sterilisation and the tubal occlusion was mainly by Pomeroy's technique. Local anaesthesia under heavy sedation was used in 85.9% of the clients. Surgical complications occurred in 3.24% and were uterine perforation, bladder and intestinal injuries and bleeding from the fallopian tube and the mesosalpinx. 3.85% had wound infection and 1.94% anaesthetic complications. Effectiveness was 100% and there was no mortality. CONCLUSION: Our institution would need to scale up counseling of clients for permanent method of contraception to improve on the poor acceptability. Careful surgical techniques with local anaesthesia alone or with light sedation and adherence to infection prevention practices would reduce the incidence of surgical, anaesthetic complications and wound sepsis that would ensure client satisfaction.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Management of urethral strictures in the UCTH Calabar
A Essiet, EE Irekpita, PD Ekwere, EO Nkposong
January-March 2007, 14(1):50-53
Forty-five consecutive cases of urethral stricture seen in a single unit over a three-year period (May 2000-April 2003) were studied to determine mode of presentation, symptoms on presentation, cause of the stricture, course of the illness and the outcome of treatment. Thirty-nine patients were treated while 6 were lost to follow up before definitive therapy could be given. Most of the patients were adult males in their prime of life. Strictures were as a result of urethritis in 24 (53.3%) cases, trauma in 16 (35.6%) cases, indwelling catheter in 3 (6.6%) cases and of uncertain aetiology in 2 (4.4%) cases. Three of the post-traumatic cases were post prostatectomy. Definitive treatment was by urethroplasty in 28 (62.2%) patients, bouginage in 11 (24.4%) patients.. Results of treatment were classified as 'GOOD' or 'POOR' based on patients' judgement of improved flow, observed improvement of flow and comparison of urethrogram results, before and after treatment. Of the 28 patients treated by urethroplasty, 21 (75%) had 'GOOD' outcome while in 7 patients (25%) the outcome was 'POOR'. In the bouginage group, outcome was 'GOOD' in 63.6% (7/11) of patients, 'POOR' in 27.3% (3/11), while one patient died from septic complications. It is concluded that urethroplasty gives overall, better results in management of strictures, but dilatation remains a viable option in carefully selected cases and that urethritis is still a foremost aetiological factor for urethral strictures in Calabar.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Hereditary wide angle exotropia in a nigerian family
AE Omoti
January-March 2007, 14(1):76-78
AIM: To present a report of a Nigerian family with wide angle exotropia resulting in amblyopia. METHODS: A family of two wives and 12 children from Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria were interviewed and examined at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City with the aid of a Snellen's chart, pen torch, slit lamp biomicroscope, ophthalmoscope and the pulsair non-contact tonometer. RESULTS: There was 450 exotropia in the right eye of the 72 year old father, his 36 year old son, his 22 years old daughter and their 24 year old half sister. There was restriction of ocular motility in the right eye medially and some degree of amblyopia in the right eye of all the patients. The father and his 22 years old daughter were myopic of between -4.00 and -6.00 dioptre sphere but the son and his 24 years old half sister had -0.75 and -1.00 dioptre sphere myopia respectively. None of them presented to hospital because of the strabismus. CONCLUSION: This report highlights the need to screen family members of patients with squint in order to detect the condition early and prevent amblyopia.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Surgery of parotid gland tumours in Lagos: A 12 year review
OA Somefun, JO Oyeneyin, FB Abdulkarrem, OB da Lilly-Tariah, LT Nimkur, OO Esan
January-March 2007, 14(1):72-75
BACKGROUND/AIM: Tumours of the parotid gland are not common. Parotid tumours can pose a challenge both in diagnosis and treatment. Various factors contribute to the management difficulties of parotid tumours for the Head neck surgeon. The aim of the study is to determine the presentation and management of parotid tumours requiring surgery at the Burns and Plastic and Otolaryngology (ORL) units of the hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study carried out at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital from January 1994- December 2005. The medical case notes were reviewed for information on age, sex, clinical presentation, surgical management, histological diagnosis and outcome. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients with parotid tumours were seen with ages ranging from 25-65 years. Male to Female ratio was 1.4:1. Forty-two (72.4%) presented with firm preauricular swelling, 1.7% as dumb bell tumour and post surgical recurrence tumour respectively, 6.8% as tail of parotid tumour and 3.5% as bilateral disease. 93.13% had superficial parotidectomy. Histological diagnosis confirmed 65.5% as pleomorphic adenoma, 20.72% as carcinomas of which adenoidcystic and mucoepidermoid tumours were the commonest,3.45% as lymphoma and 1.7% as Sjogrens syndrome, oxyphil and Warthins tumour respectively. Immediate post surgical facial nerve palsy was seen in 69% and recovery was seen in 62% within 3-9months. Post surgical radiotherapy was given to 8.6%. CONCLUSION: The commonest parotid salivary gland tumour requiring surgery is pleomorphic adenoma, presenting as a pre-auricular mass and the commonest post- surgical complication was facial nerve palsy involving the mandibular branch. A good knowledge of the surgical anatomy of the gland, clinical behaviour and biologic nature of the tumours will ensure better surgical management.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Euthyroid sick syndrome and cardiac failure in Zaria, Nigeria
SS Danbauchi, FE Anumah, HS Isah, GC Onyemelekwe
January-March 2007, 14(1):16-20
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study was aimed at establishing the existence of sick euthyroid syndrome in our patients with cardiac failure and to find out whether the syndrome in the our patients has a peculiar pattern PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty subjects diagnosed with cardiac failure in NYHA class 3 and 4 were studied; they had clinical evaluation, electrocardiograph, chest radiograph and echocardiograph. The biochemical investigation included urea, electrolyte, and creatinine, thyroid function test (T3, T4 and TSH). Thirty individuals who served as control (age and sex matched) also had similar evaluation to the subjects.RESULTS: The subjects' ages ranging from 17 to 85 years and a mean of 51.0 +/- 15.8 years compared to controls with a mean age of 48.9 +/- 8.1 years (p < 0.1). Twenty-two and eight patients were in NYHA class3 and 4 respectively. The subjects had a lower mean T3 than controls of 1.42 +/- 0.07 ug/l and 2.3 +/- 1.0 ug/l respectively and p < 0.001. The mean T4 levels were higher in the subjects than controls (85.4 +/- 26 ug/l and 70.0 +/- 1.7 ug/l respectively and p < 0.001) but TSH levels were similar in the two groups. The subjects had higher mean values of LAD, aortic root diameter, IVSD, LVIDD, LVPW, EDV ESV, LVM and LVMI (p < 0.05). The LV ejection fraction and fractional shortening were lower in subjects than controls (p <0.01). Six, seventeen and seven subjects had diastolic, systolic and combined diastolic-systolic dysfunction on echocardiography respectively. There was a positive correlation between T3 with duration of cardiac failure and ejection fraction (p < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between T3 and LVM, LVMI, LVIDD, EDV, LAD and cardio-thoracic ratio. The levels of T4 showed a positive relationship with LAD and CTR. Partial correlation was statistically significant between T3 and duration of cardiac failure, duration of aetiology of cardiac failure and LVM. The various forms of cardiac failure (diastolic, systolic and combined diastolic-systolic dysfunction) showed no statistically significant difference in mean levels of T3, T4 and TSH. CONCLUSION: Euthyroid sick syndrome is also seen in Nigerians with cardiac failure as reported elsewhere and the levels of T3 seemed to be inversely proportional to LAD, CTR, LVIDD, LVM and LVMI. Serum T3 levels are also directly proportional to EF and FS. Low serum levels of T3 with normal T4 and TSH is associated with severe cardiac failure.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Risk factors for cancer of the cervix
AA Fatiregun, IO Yisa, EA Bamgboye
January-March 2007, 14(1):46-49
BACKGROUND: Cancer of the cervix is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cancer in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the risk factors associated with cancer of the cervix as seen in patients presenting to a tertiary hospital with gynaecologic conditions. STUDY DESIGN: The case control study design was used with a retrospective review of records of randomly selected cases of cancers of the cervix from the cancer registry and appropriate controls among hospital patients. RESULTS: Binary logistic regression carried out on the data revealed that contraceptive method (OR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.75, 6.51) number of children (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.09, 1.47), and age (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.10) were the significant risk factors out of all the potential risk factors that were assessed. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a useful insight into the general pattern of risk associated with cancer of the cervix in our environment.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Available and affordable pre-definitive surgical management of symblepharon in end stage stevens johnson syndrome: A case report
CO Adeoti, J Ubah
January-March 2007, 14(1):79-81
We describe an affordable, easily available technique to relieve discomfort, free the eyeball and partially rehabilitate a patient with ocular complications of end stage Stevens Johnson syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two eyes of a patient with severe adhesions between the lids, bulbar conjunctiva and cornea were involved. After taking consent from patient, the adhesions were separated and the fornices were dressed with sofratulle and artificial lubricants until healing was complete. DISCUSSION: The separation of the lids from the globe and prevention of contact between the ocular surface and tarsal conjunctiva until both are healed by sofratulle and lubricants happens to be the only choice in our environment without material and human resources for complex procedures such as submandibular autotransplantation, osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis and modified cutler beard flap. The use of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) was also not feasible at that time. RESULTS: The visual acuity was hand movement in both eyes, the lids were free and the eyes remained freely mobile four weeks after surgery. CONCLUSION: In an environment with little resources, our procedure is recommended for use as an initial procedure pending final rehabilitative surgery, as it is easily available and affordable.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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The causes and outcomes of cancellation of orthopaedic surgeries at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex Ile-Ife, Nigeria
KS Oluwadiya, AA Olasinde, OA Olakulehin, SA Olatoke, LM Oginni, F Ako
January-March 2007, 14(1):42-45
BACKGROUND: Cancellation of cases on the scheduled day of surgery leads to an inefficient utilisation of scarce hospital and patient's resources. Identifying the causes of such cancellations will assist in taking steps to avoid them. METHODS: This is a retrospective study spanning 10 years. Record was taken of all patients who had orthopaedic surgery at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife Nigeria. The age, sex, type of operation, whether or not the surgery was ever postponed or cancelled, the duration and reasons for such postponements and the duration of admission were collated and analysed. RESULTS: Five hundred and fifty two (40.8%) of the 1,353 orthopaedic patients scheduled for surgery experienced cancellation. The most common reasons were attributable to the hospital (48.7%) mainly due to infrastructural breakdown (28.7%) and procedural lapses by hospital personnel (20.0%). Self cancellation by patient (37.8%) followed and was mainly due to financial constraints (25.6%). Upper respiratory tract infections were responsible for the cancellation in 8.6%. These delays were responsible for more than 30% of the duration of admission in 93 (16.8%) patients. CONCLUSION: The incidence of postponement of cases on the scheduled day of surgery is still high. Most of the causes are preventable. Better infrastructural facilities, enhanced interdepartmental communication and improved attitude to work would reduce the rate and thus enhance utilisation of theatre space.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Sexual behaviour and associated risk factors among adolescent/ young adult male transport workers at Yaba bus stop, Lagos
KA Odeyemi, A Osibogun
January-March 2007, 14(1):21-25
OBJECTIVES: Sexual activity is increasing among young people with negative consequences and out of school males are a vulnerable segment of the population. This study was carried out to examine the sexual behaviour of young males who are out of school and identify factors that influence their behaviour. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted among all the three hundred and ninety one young male bus conductors and drivers at Yaba bus stop Lagos. They were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Almost all the respondents (93.4%) have had sexual intercourse and many of them with multiple partners. Less than half of them used condoms at every intercourse. Their main reasons for initiating sexual intercourse were peer pressure and curiosity. There was a significant relationship between early initiation of sexual intercourse and use of drugs and alcohol(p<0.05).Respondents who have resided with their parents initiated intercourse at an older age than those residing with other people.(p<0.05) CONCLUSION: Many young out of school males are sexually active and engage in high-risk sexual behaviour. Provision of sexuality education programmes, co-habitation of parents with their young children and the control of use of alcohol and drugs are important in delaying sexual initiation and reducing sexual risk taking among young people.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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