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   2015| April-June  | Volume 22 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 21, 2015

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Hypertension and diabetes self-care activities: A hospital based pilot survey in Benin City, Nigeria
OG Egbi, AN Ofili, E Oviasu
April-June 2015, 22(2):117-122
Aims and Objectives: The burden of hypertension and diabetes is on the increase globally with its attendant complications. Although self-care activities are critical to the successful management of both conditions, there are only a few reports on such activities, especially in this part of the world. This pilot study was therefore undertaken to assess the self-care activities among hypertensive and diabetic patients in Benin City. Patients and Methods: Hypertensive and diabetic patients were consecutively recruited from the out- patient department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The questionnaires were developed based on past assessment scales such as the Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects (H-SCALE) and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Assessment (SDSCA) for hypertensive and diabetic participants respectively. Results: A total of 85(32 hypertensive, 24 diabetic and 29 co-morbid hypertensive diabetic) participants completed the study. Only 14 (16.5%) subjects had good self-care practice, 39 (45.9%) had fair practice while poor self-care practice was found in 32 (37.6%) subjects. Adherence to medications, clinic adherence, use of self-monitoring devices, regular exercising and dietician contact were generally low. However, only a relatively few subjects smoked tobacco or took significant alcohol. Conclusion: The health-related self-care practice among the patients was generally not good. There was no significant difference in the overall level of self-care among hypertensive, diabetic patients or those with co-morbid conditions. There is need for more aggressive health education aimed at improving the current health-related self-care habits among these patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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IVF pregnancy and delivery following ultrasound scan guided aspiration of a left hydrosalpinx - A case report
JE Okohue, JI Ikimalo
April-June 2015, 22(2):123-125
The presence of hydrosalpinges is known to significantly reduce the pregnancy and implantation rates following in vitro fertilization (IVF). Salpingectomy or laparoscopic tubal occlusion before IVF have been shown to significantly improve pregnancy rates. Aspiration of the hydrosalpinges at the time of oocyte retrieval for IVF had been proposed as a viable alternative. We present a 36year old nullipara with unilateral hydrosalpinx who declined salpingectomy prior to IVF treatment and subsequently had two failed IVF cycles. She however became pregnant with the third IVF attempt, following transvaginal ultrasound scan guided aspiration of the hydrosalpinx fluid at the time of oocyte retrieval. Large randomized trials are needed to clearly identify the place of ultrasound scan guided aspiration of hydrosalpinges on IVF outcome.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Role of risk-based approach in the prevention of vertical transmission of neonatal sepsis
AS Adeniran, AP Aboyeji, AA Fawole, OO Adesiyun, R Saidu
April-June 2015, 22(2):87-92
Aims and Objectives: Vertical transmission of infections remains a common cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. We studied the risk-based approach in preventing the vertical transmission of neonatal sepsis. Patients and methods: A prospective case control study of 154 pregnant women with risk factors for vertical transmission of infections (subjects) and 154 pregnant women without the risk factors (control) at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin from 1st July to 31st December, 2010. After counseling and consent taking, all participants had active management of labour and all subjects had parenteral intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with Ampicillin. There was postnatal evaluation of all babies for signs of neonatal sepsis followed by blood culture and treatment of culture positive babies. The outcome measures were signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis, neonatal positive blood culture and maternal postpartum morbidity. Results: Neonatal sepsis occurred in 16 babies (subjects=11, control=5); three babies had Early Onset Group B Streptococcal Disease (EOGBSD) (subjects=2, control=1; P=0.501) while 13 had non Group B Streptococcal (GBS) infections (subjects=9, control=4; P=0.113); onset of signs and symptoms was <24hrs in all cases, incidence of EOGBSD were 12.9/1000 (subjects) and 6.5/1000 (controls). Subjects whose babies had sepsis had multiple risk factors; one dose of antibiotics and antibiotics to delivery interval <2hours. There was no sepsis in babies of mothers who had adequate antibiotic prophylaxis. There was no maternal or neonatal death but 17.5% of subjects had maternal postpartum morbidities. Conclusion: The risk-based approach is a practicable alternative in preventing vertical transmission of neonatal sepsis if antibiotic prophylaxis is adequate before delivery.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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A four-year retrospective review of very low birth weight babies seen at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
R Onalo, EK Olateju
April-June 2015, 22(2):93-99
Aims and Objectives: To review the outcome of very low birthweight infants admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) of University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of very low birthweight (VLBW) babies seen at the SCBU of UATH over a 4-year period from April 2006 to March 2010, was undertaken. Data were obtained from patients' folders and analyzed. Results: Overall survival was 60.8%. Survival of infants with birth weight below 1000 grams was 26.8% compared to 66.4% for those between 1000 and 1499 grams. The main determinants of survival were birth weight (p<0.0001) and gestational age (p = 0.0106). Other predictors of outcome were development of features of respiratory distress syndrome within hours of delivery, recurrent apnoea, drainage of liquor of more than 18 hours before delivery, hyperkalaemia, lack of antenatal care and being born-before-arrival (outborn). Conclusions: Survival rate is low compared to values from other communities in developing countries but better than values from many centres in Nigeria. Timely and effective management of apnoea, respiratory distress syndrome and prevention of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) deliveries through adequate antenatal care are required to improve on the current survival rate.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Mandibular premolars with multiple roots: A case report
OO Dosumu, AO Sulaiman, FS Olasemi
April-June 2015, 22(2):126-128
Although the human mandibular premolars are known to exhibit variations in their root and canal configurations, multiple roots in mandibular premolars are rare though some cases have been reported. Prevalence of two rooted mandibular first and second premolars have been reported to be 1.8% - 2.1% and 0.4% respectively. Variations in root anatomy have been seen to differ with racial groups, gender and genetics. This case documents anatomical variation of mandibular premolars roots with a view to enhance successful endodontic treatments in Nigerians. A radiological investigation of the right and left mandibular jaw of a 20 year old man revealed that the mandibular right first and second premolars had two roots each. The left second premolar also presented with two roots. The occurrence of anatomical variations in the roots and canals of the human mandibular premolars cannot be overemphasised and should be considered diligently before performing endodontic treatment.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  853 101 -
Risk factors for apical periodontitis in a Nigerian Sub-Urban adult population
AO Oginni, AA Adeleke, MO Mejabi, OA Sotunde
April-June 2015, 22(2):105-109
Aims and objectives: To assess the risk factors of apical periodontitis (AP) in a Nigerian sub-urban adult population and to compare the findings with those previously reported for various population groups. Materials and methods: The study was based on a full mouth radiographic survey of 285 patients. Patients' age ranged from 18-60 years. All teeth were assessed individually and data recorded for caries, fractured / cracked teeth, root fillings, and tooth restorations. The gender, smoking habit, and frequency of dental visit were also recorded. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of AP in the individual. Results: The prevalence of AP was 74.4%. The average number of teeth with AP per patient was 2.8 (range 1-5). AP was found to be more prevalent among people 40- 49 years old (87.2%). Primary carious lesions, fractured / cracked teeth, root fillings and coronal fillings were associated with the incidence of AP in the individual. Fractured teeth had a higher risk of developing AP than carious teeth. The presence of root fillings and coronal restorations were also associated with the development of AP. Smoking (OR=3.82; CI=2.17-6.75) and irregular dental visit (OR=6.73; CI=3.75-12.06) were statistically significant risk factors for developing AP. Gender was not a risk factor for AP (OR=0.86; CI=0.50-1.46). Conclusion: The prevalence of AP among adult Nigerians is slightly higher than reported figures for many Western societies. Fractured/cracked teeth had a higher risk of developing AP than carious teeth; hence patients with fractured / cracked teeth should seek treatment early to prevent the development of AP.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  848 106 -
Computed tomography in the evaluation of recurrent unprovoked seizure disorders at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Nigeria
RC Onwuchekwa, AC Onwuchekwa
April-June 2015, 22(2):100-104
Aims and objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of cranial Computed Tomography (CT) Scan in detecting intracranial structural diseases related to recurrent unprovoked seizure disorder. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of the findings in 120 patients who had cranial CT scan for recurrent unprovoked seizure disorders in the Department of Radiology of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from August 2010 to September 2012. Results: Of the 1,240 cranial CT scans performed during the period under review, only 120 (9.7%) cases had recurrent unprovoked seizure as indication for the procedure and were therefore included in the study. The patients were 71 (59.2%) males and 49 (40.8%) females. The ages of patients ranged from 1 month to 90 years. The mean age was 29.7+21.8 years. The highest prevalence of seizure disorder (25.8%) occurred in the less than ten year age group. The commonest lesions found were cerebral tumours 11 (9.2%), cerebral infarction 11 (9.2%) and cerebral atrophy 7 (5.8%). Cranial CT Scans were normal in 76 (63.3%) patients with recurrent unprovoked seizure disorders. The most frequent seizure type was generalized tonic clonic (76.7%). Conclusion: The use of Cranial CT Scan as a diagnostic tool led to the detection of intracranial lesions in 36.7% of patients with recurrent unprovoked seizure disorders. The detection of intracranial lesions in these patients would facilitate early and appropriate intervention.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  831 108 -
Smokers and non smokers: A comparison of oral health practices and effect of non surgical periodontal therapy on their periodontium
EB Dosumu, FB Lawal, OA Akinyemi
April-June 2015, 22(2):110-116
Aims and objectives: To assess the oral hygiene measures and self report oral symptoms of smokers and non smokers, as well as evaluate and compare the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on their periodontium. Materials and methods: This was a quasi experimental study conducted on smokers and non smokers. Adult patient smokers were recruited into the study group and matched with age and sex controls (non-smokers). Data was collected on oral hygiene measures and self reported oral symptoms. The patients were examined and evaluated using oral indices. Each patient had scaling and root planing done and was re-examined after six weeks. Data was analysed using SPSS. Results: Seventy-two patients completed the study with age ranging from 20 to 65 years and a mean age of 43.7 (± 17.8) years. Twenty-one percent (21%) of smokers and 42% of the non smokers reported experiencing gum bleeding, p = 0.041. Sixty percent of the smokers reported stains on their teeth compared to 29.7% of non smokers, p = 0.028. The baseline gingival and calculus indices were lower in smokers compared to non smokers while the plaque index was higher among the smokers. The response to scaling and root planing was worse among smokers comparing their gingival and calculus indices but better in terms of the plaque indices, however, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the response of smokers and non smokers to non surgical periodontal therapy although smokers experienced gingival bleeding less often and have lower gingival index.
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